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Information Literacy Guide December 18, 2013

Filed under: Uncategorized — Anita DeCianni-Brown @ 3:03 pm
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What is Information Literacy?

Gail Bush describes Information Literacy as being able to access information and then be able to evaluate, judge, synthesize and then use the information for one’s own purposes.  How can this be achieved?  This guide is intended for students in secondary education as they start to build an understanding of research and gathering information, which will aid in their development of higher critical thinking skills.  Information Literacy in the 21st Century is an important skill that is necessary in education and the world of work.  As the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy reports, problem solving is more difficult when people lack access to meaningful information vital to good decision-making and the ability to determine what is viable information, and what is not. 


Types of Information Literacy?

Literacy was once considered just reading and writing.  The meaning has now become much more broad and covers more than just the printed word.  The ability to develop multiple literacies increases one’s understanding.  (Blair, 2012)  When researching information, one needs to evaluate sources for validity of the information in order to form their own opinion or viewpoint.  This includes evaluation of new media literacies.  Students, as well as adults, are part of participatory environments that have and continue to emerge.  (Pascarella)  One needs to develop skills in the following areas:

  • Critical Literacy – Reading and Thinking
  • Media Literacy – Visual and Computer
  • Research – Searching and Evaluating
  • Information Ethics – Copyright and Security/Privacy

Why is developing the skill of Information Literacy important?

Individuals may think developing the skill of Information Literacy just pertains to education, particularly higher education.  Developing this skill helps carry on every day tasks and research for one’s persona life as well.

  • Shopping
  • Cars
  • Insurance

Current Events

Being able to determine accuracy of information that is available is important.  There are instances where fake stories are reported either as a joke or to create a negative image of a person or place.

  • Just because it is on the Internet, does that mean it is the truth and accurate?
  • The majority of blogs are written reflecting one’s personal opinion.  Even when there is work cited included, many times these still reflect the person’s view based on what they have read.
  • Are the images that are on the Internet all real? 
  • Have they been altered?

Availability of Information

Information is now available anytime and everywhere (with an Internet connection), 24 hours per day, 7 days a week.  Information is available through:



  •  Public Libraries
  • College Libraries

·     Access to Scholarly Articles

·     Access to Scholarly Journals


Online Databases

  •  Some charge a fee for access to journals
  • Some access is given through a university’s website for their students, employees and alumni
  • Google Scholar

Printed Material

  • Textbooks
  • Books


When doing research on a topic, one can use a company’s/organization’s website to obtain information.  For example, if doing research on the topic of juvenile diabetes, one might consult the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation for statistics and other general information about the disease. 


Social Media

Information shared through these venues include current events, pop culture and personal opinion.  If a story is being reported, it is best to see if it is reported via news outlets.  There are instances where false stories are created in blogs and shared to try to sway public opinion about a person or place, but there is no validity to the information.

  • LinkedIn
  • Facebook
  •  Twitter
  • Blogger/WordPress or other blogging sites

Evaluating Information

  • Is the information a reliable source?
  • Is the information based on one’s personal opinion/viewpoint or is it presented by an expert and published in a journal or article database?


Work Cited:


Blair, N.  (2010)  Raising the Bar in Public Libraries: Literacy, Adolescent Development and Young Adult Services

University of Iowa, LIS Journal.  (Accessed, December 12, 2013).  http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=bsides


Bush, G.  Information Literacy in the 21st Century Classroom.  January 26, 2012. 


Pascarella, J.  (2008) Confronting the Challenges of Critical Digital Literacy: An Essay Review Critical Constructivism: A Primer.  Educational Studies.  43.  P. 246 – 255


Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report, American Library Association, July 24, 2006.


Watch what you post November 10, 2013

Filed under: Uncategorized — Anita DeCianni-Brown @ 3:02 pm
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Jenkins states over the past several decades that media literacy advocates have called on schools to, “foster a critical understanding of media as one of the most powerful social, economic, political, and cultural institutions of our era.”  He goes on to say that these skills are essential.  New Media literacies should be viewed as social skills, as a way of interacting within a larger community, and not simply an individualized skills to be used for personal expression.  Along these same lines, McLuhan states that privacy doesn’t have the same meaning as it did in previous time, and that was from an interview he did in 1966.


We are at a time in our cultural where individuals need to be trained on the use of media and technology.  Not just how to use it, but when.  Understanding the use of media literacy is not just necessary for younger people and children, but adults as well.  I have heard and read much discussion on one’s Freedom of Speech.  True, this is a Constitutional right in order to be able to have a say.  There are times, that this can bring repercussions though. 


In Trottman’s article, she discusses workers being fired for bad-mouthing their employers on social media sites.  Under the National Labor Relations Act, workers are allowed to complain about pay, safety and other working conditions.  The article goes on to describe one firing where a woman called her boss a “scumbag” and an employee of BMW being fired for voicing his displeasure in an upcoming event for the dealership. 


Just in this past week, there was an article about a girls’ basketball coach from Idaho.  She posted a photo on Facebook of she and her fiancé (who is also a coach at the same school).  In the photo, they are both in their bathing suits and he is seen grabbing her chest.  It was on Facebook for less than a day and she took it down.  However, as we all know, once the digital trail has been created, one may not know who sees it.  Someone had seen the photo and submitted it to the school.  The school fired her on the basis they felt the photo was inappropriate to have been shared on Facebook.  Oddly, her fiancé kept his coaching position, which is a totally other issue.  McLuhan states that when you put a new medium into play in a given population, all sensory gets shifted and had an affect on the population’s outlook and attitude.  Frankly, the photo was foolishly shared, but not a fireable offense.  It is quite obvious that individuals police social media activity.  

It’s really difficult to figure out who is responsible for the education of critical media literacy.  As I mention above, this is something that is needed for children as well as adults.  Even with privacy settings in place, electronic trails are created. 

Work cited:


Allen, S. Idaho High School Fires Coach for Facebook Photo of Boyfriend Grabbing Her Chest.  USAToday (accessed November 9, 2013):  http://www.usatodayhss.com/news/article/idaho-high-school-fires-coach-after-she-posts-a-photo-of-boyfriend-grabbing-her-chest


Daily Mail Reporters.  The Facebook photo of a high school basketball coach and her fiancé that got her fired (because he touched her boob).  Mail Online (accessed November 9, 2013). 


McLuhan, M.  (1966).  TV as an involving medium.  http://marshallmcluhanspeaks.com/television/1966-tv-as-an-involving-medium.php


McLuhan, M.  (1968).  Privacy in the electric age.  http://marshallmcluhanspeaks.com/prophecies/1968-privacy-in-the-electric-age.php


Trottman, M.  (2011)  For Angry Employees, Legal Cover for Rants.  The Wall Street Journal.  (accessed November 9, 2013): 


Literacies September 22, 2013

When one thinks about literacy, they may make an immediate reference to the basics of words and numbers.  But literacy of the 21st century has expanded to from one’s ability to work with words and numbers to the development of information literacy, digital literacy, computer literacy, social literacy and visual literacy.  One needs to have:

  • Computer literacy skills in order to navigate through the Internet 
  • Information literacy skills in order to identify, locate, evaluate and effectively use the information 
  • Visual literacy in order to read and decipher visual information such as photos, graphics, charts, etc. 
  • Social Literacy in order to work collaboratively with and engage with others 
  • Digital literacy to be able to read and interpret media, reproduce data and images and evaluate and apply new knowledge gained from the digital environments

There are valid arguments on both sides of the literacy debate regarding the use of the Internet.  However, I tend to lean more toward the value that the Internet lends in an education environment.  One particular statement in Rich’s article that resonated with me, and supports my view was Zachary Sims, “The Web is more about a conversation, books are more one-way.” As an avid reader of both the Internet and printed books, I have to agree with him.  Books are more personal.  Whereas information on the Internet does tend to be more of a conversation.  In most cases, sites, blogs, information on the Internet promotes or gives the opportunity for engagement.  One can share, comment, respond and interact based on what they have read. 


Rich talks of the traditionalists who feel that digital reading is the equivalence of empty calories.  I don’t agree with this view.  I find that the use of readings on the Internet can have value.  Individuals can gather information via the Internet and decide how this information relates to the issue or problem and then use the information gathered to solve the problem or form an opinion.  It offers the opportunity to gather and share information beyond geographic boundaries, which can also enhance one’s learning.